# IQ Test Labs

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### Cognitive abilities

Logic theme found on tests of academic achievement include deductive, inductive, and analytical reasoning:

• Syllogism (deductive reasoning)
• Shape sequences (inductive reasoning)
• Ordering (analytical reasoning)
• Grouping (analytical reasoning)

### Deductive reasoning

#### Syllogism

• Cases - Common syllogictic arguments listing all immediate inferences and valid conclusions.
• Rules - Categorical fallacies and rules to consider when assesing the validity of an argument.
• Valid arguments - A list of the twenty four valid syllogism arguments.
• Distribution of terms - Concepts surrounding terms distributed in the premises and conclusion.
• Merging concept - Merging conclusions.
• Possibility - Exploring possibilities about valid conclusions.
• Examples - Two premises and multiple premise worked examples.

### Inductive reasoning

• Shapes - Figure out which shape comes next in the sequence.

### Analytical reasoning

• Diagrams - Strategically placed notes and notations simplify passages.
• Deductions - Information implicit in statements form valuable deductions.
• Equivalent rules - Stating a rule diffently is one of the fastest ways to make a deduction.
• Repeats - Elements that appear in more than one rule.
• Setups - Ordering, grouping and mixed setups.
• Keywords - Words that highlight important relationships between elements.
• Outside knowledge - Knowledge that doesn't originate in the passage should be avoided.
• Scenarios - If grouping setups can be reduced to two or three cases then scenarios may be worthwhile.