# IQ Test Labs

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### Worked examples

When evaluating the validity of syllogistic arguments, it helps to gain confidence working with Euler diagrams.

Practice drawing accurate diagrams that represent the relationships between the statement types and which help to solve syllogisms visually.

Use syllogistic rules wherever applicable in order to narrow down the choices in the conclusions/options.

The distribution of terms rules 3-5 are analyzed in each example.

Cases similar to categorical syllogism arguments are shown according to each conclusion.

### Syllogism worked examples

#### Example 1:

1. All Makaras are Patalans.

2. Some Makaras are Svargans.

Conclusion: Some Svargans are Patalans.

Conclusion is valid

Similar to case 7.

Rule 1: When both premises are positive, then the conclusion must be positive.

Rule 3: The middle term, B, is distributed in the major premise.

Rule 9: If a statement begins with 'some', the conclusion must begin with 'some'.

#### Example 2:

1. No Monopods are Panchaian.

2. Some Simurgh are Monopods.

Conclusion: Some Simurgh are not Panchaian.

Conclusion is valid

Similar to case 12.

Rule 2: When 'No' appears in a statement, 'Some-not' should follow as a valid possible conclusion.

Rule 3: The middle term, B, is distributed in the major premise.

Rule 4: The major term, P, is distributed in the conclusion and the major premise.

Rule 7: If one statement is negative, the conclusion must be negative.

Rule 9: If a statement begins with 'some', the conclusion must begin with 'some'.

#### Example 3:

1. All Phantomes are Milesians.

2. Some Sharabhas are Milesians.

Conclusion: Some Sharabhas are Phantomes.

Conclusion is not valid

Similar to case 8.

Rule 3: The middle term, B, is not distributed in the premises.

#### Example 4:

1. Some Pixiu are Mag Mellians.

2. No Scyllas are Mag Mellians.

Conclusion: Some Pixiu are not Scyllas.

Conclusion is valid

Similar to case 13.

Rule 2: When 'No' appears in a statement, 'Some-not' should follow as a valid possible conclusion.

Rule 3: The middle term, B, is distributed in the major premise.

Rule 5: The minor term, S, is distributed in the conclusion and the minor premise.

Rule 7: If one statement is negative, the conclusion must be negative.

Rule 9: If a statement begins with 'some', the conclusion must begin with 'some'.

#### Example 5:

1. All Pukwudgies are Mus.

2. Some Sharbhas are not Mus.

Conclusion: Some Pukwudgies are not Sharabhas.

Conclusion is not valid

Similar to case 17.

Rule 5: Whereas the minor term, S, is distributed in the conclusion, it is not distributed in the minor premise.

#### Example 6:

1. All Peludas are Mukos.

2. Some Sirtias are not Mukos.

Conclusion: Some Sirtias are not Peludas.

Conclusion is valid

Similar to case 17.

Rule 3: The middle term, B, is distributed in the minor premise.

Rule 4: The major term, P, is distributed in the conclusion and the major premise.

Rule 7: If one statement is negative, the conclusion must be negative.

Rule 9: If a statement begins with 'some', the conclusion must begin with 'some'.

#### Example 7:

1. All Merlians are Pojhans.

2. Some Stallos are not Merlions.

Conclusion: Some Stallos are not Pohjans.

Conclusion is not valid

Rule 5: Whereas the major term, P, is distributed in the conclusion, it is not distributed in the major premise.

#### Example 8:

1. Some Myrmidons are Pangaians.

2. All Myrmidons are Scyllas.

Conclusion: Some Pangaians are Scyllas.

Conclusion is valid

Similar to case 7.

Rule 1: When both premises are positive, then the conclusion must be positive.

Rule 3: The middle term, B, is distributed in the minor premise.

Rule 9: If a statement begins with 'some', the conclusion must begin with 'some'.