- Haptic intelligence test for adult blind
The Haptic intelligence test is is a
performance-based intelligence measure for blind and partially
sighted adults and can be completed in up to an hour and a half.
It is a tactile performance test and was designed to be used with,
or independently of, the verbal scale of the WAIS. It can
therefore be used as a replacement of the performance subtests of
the WAIS for people who have no usable vision. In
fact Wechsler's procedures were followed in the statistical
treatment of the data and in establishing age categories.
It consists of the following subtests
Dot symbol: analyzing dot patterns
Object assembly: assembling puzzle parts such as
Pattern board: examining and reproducing peg
Bead arithmetic: solving arithmetic problems on
Object completion: identification of the missing
part of an object, for example, a comb with a missing tooth.
Block design: blocks with different sides of
varying textures are rearranged to resemble patterns on plates.
Digital symbol: Numbers, represented by raised
dots, are associated with 6 different geometric forms
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The verbal WAIS is administered to the visually
impaired in the same way that it is administered to the sighted,
and mean scores have been show to be equivalent. In addition, no
significant differences have been found between the scores of the
partially blind and the totally blind, or between congenital and
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
Verbal scale tests are usually the only ones to
be administered from the WISC. In cases when the child has little
or no useful vision, the WISC performance tests may underestimate
the child's true potential. If necessary, performance IQ can be
evaluated qualitatively by observing manipulative tasks such as
Visually impaired children have been shown to
score high on digit span, which is regarded as a compensatory skill. Their
scores are underestimated in similarities and comprehension, due
to the abstract concepts contained in these sections. As with the
WAIS, the mean scores of the visually impaired and the sighted are
- Stanford - Ohwaki - Koh's block design scale
The Stanford-Ohwaki-Koh's block design scale,
developed in 1923, is a
modification of the Koh's block design scale. It involves the use
of touch in order to differentiate between objects, and takes 1-2
hours to administer. The Stanford-Ohwaki-Koh was normed on a visually handicapped population and
results are reported as percentiles and quotient scores. It is a
performance IQ measure and one of it's sections can also be found
in the WAIS-R. However since the WAIS-R is normed in a different
way to the Standord-Ohwaki-Koh, scores should not be compared to
- The Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT)
The Blind Learning aptitude test is designed for
children of all school grades. It was normed on students enrolled
in residential schools 30 years ago, and therefore the norming is
considered to be inflated.
The test consists of raised-line symbols, similar
to Braille. There are various behavioral tasks and the
main theme is being able to differentiate between symbols and make deductions. Many of the tasks are adaptations of items
on the culture fair intelligence test, and Raven's progressive
There have been some issues with the testing
materials such as durability and structure. However, the test can
be helpful in discovering strengths and weaknesses and can be a
useful complement to other tests of intelligence. Qualitative
feedback can also be provided by observing a child performing the
tasks. Studies have shown that the BLAT is correlated to
comprehension and Braille reading speed.
- Cognitive test for the blind (CTB)
The CTB assesses cognitive functions including
measures of abstract reasoning, auditory language functions,
memory and spatial abilities.
Verbal subtests: auditory analysis, immediate
digit recall, language comprehension and memory, letter number
Non visual performance subtests: haptic category
learning, haptic category memory, haptic memory recognition,
pattern recall, spatial analysis
The CTB is an integral component of the
comprehensive vocational evaluation system (CVES). The CVES includes an
assessment of three major constructs of behavior:
verbal-spatial-cognitive, sensorimotor, and emotional-coping.
- Interim Hayes-Binet intelligence scale.
Published in 1942, this test makes use of items
in the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale that do not require the
use of vision. The scales created for both children and
adults show high correlations with measures of academic
- The Perkins-Binet
Considered a successor to the Interim
Hayes-Binet, the Perkins-Binet contains both verbal IQ and
performance IQ items. It was standardized on low vision and blind
school children but the norms are now considered to be dated since
it was first published in 1980. The test has correlated low with
the WISC-R and has been shown to lack reliability. The
Perkins-Binet has had issues with confusing test items and has
been withdrawn from the market.
- Raven's progressive matrices.
Rich and Anderson developed a tactual form of the
Raven's colored progressive matrices. High reliability and
moderate validity coefficients were reported.
The tactual version of the D-48 was developed in
1968 by G.Domino. It consists of ordinary three dimensional
dominoes and follows the same sequence as the original test. Even
though there is no time limit the tasks frustrated some of the
examinees. However the results were quite encouraging and
correlated significantly with the WAIS verbal tests.
- Haptic sensory discrimination test (HSDT)
The HSDT measures functional tactual
discrimination and short-term tactual memory.
- Slosson Intelligence Test - Revised
intelligence test is a verbal intelligence screening test. This
test can be administered and scored within 20 minutes and is
norm-referenced for ages 4-65
- Intelligence test for visually impaired
This test examines both verbal and tactile
abilities and is published in English, Dutch and German by the
Bartimeus Center in Holland.
- The Vithoba Paknikars performance test for the
This test measures cognitive behavior through
various performance measures.
- Haptic Memory Matching Test (HMMT).
The HMMT is used to assess haptic memory and
-Detroit Test of Learning Aptitude
Scores have been shown to correlate well with
the verbal subtests of the Wechsler scales.
- Hill performance test of selected positional
The Hill performance test measures the
development of spatial concepts in visually-impaired children.
- Curriculum guide for deaf-blind and severely
This guide meets the need of those individuals
with multiple sensory, mental, orthopedic, neurological and
behavior handicapping conditions.
- Tactile TONI.
The tactile TONI is a raised-line form of the
TONI, graphic performance test. Not yet published.
- Woodcock-JohnsonŽ III Tests of achievement
Woodcock-JohnsonŽ is a diagnostic test
used to assess academic and language achievement. It
available in large print through the American
printing house for the blind (APH). Braille/tactile editions are
also developed by the APH. There is a limited amount of low-level
items and therefore the test is not suitable for young students.
- SAT and GRE
The SAT and the GRE are college entrance tests
and are available in large print
and Braille editions. Studies have shown that the mean scores of the
visually impaired and the sighted are equivalent as
long as the tests are not timed.